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  1. Manuscript describing methods and outcomes of IRB approved study on this manual development is currently in preparation.
  2. Shields M, Kestenbaum A, Dunn LB. Spiritual AIM and the work of the chaplain: a model for assessing spiritual needs and outcomes in relationship. Palliat Support Care. 2015 Feb;13(1):75-89.
  3. Kestenbaum A, Shields M, James J, Hocker W, Morgan S, Karve S, Rabow MW, Dunn LB. What Impact Do Chaplains Have? A Pilot Study of Spiritual AIM for Advanced Cancer Patients in Outpatient Palliative Care. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2017 Nov;54(5):707-714.
  4. Association of Professional Chaplains (2021) Standards for Professional Certification. Accessed 26 October 2021.
  5. Responses provided by study participants via free-text responses and self-identification.
  6. Rubric inspired by Fitchett, G. Assessing Spiritual Needs, Academic Renewal Press, 2002.
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